Understanding Verbal Contract Law: A Step-by-Step Guide

Explore the essentials of verbal contract law, from enforceability to best practices, in our comprehensive guide.


Verbal contract law quickly addresses the crucial question: Are spoken agreements legally binding? Yes, they can be, but proving them in court can be challenging due to their inherent “he said, she said” nature.

Verbal agreements, while legally valid, rely heavily on the honor system until they’re disputed in a legal setting. Without written evidence, the clarity of such contracts often becomes muddied, making them difficult to enforce. This introduction lays the foundation for understanding the complexities and requirements for verbal contracts to be considered binding under the law.

For those dealing with legal issues or looking to secure a business deal, recognizing the significance of verbal contracts and their limitations is essential. We’ll delve into the legal landscape that governs these types of agreements, providing a clear pathway to navigate potential disputes or misunderstandings.

What is a Verbal Contract?

A verbal contract is an agreement made through spoken words between two or more parties. Unlike written contracts, these are not recorded on paper but are still intended to be binding. Verbal contracts are also known as oral contracts or handshake agreements.

Oral vs. Written

The main difference between oral and written contracts is the form in which they are agreed and recorded. Oral contracts are agreed upon through spoken communication and rely heavily on the good faith of all parties involved. In contrast, written contracts are documented and signed, providing a physical record of the agreement’s terms and conditions.

Oral contracts can be just as legally binding as written ones, but proving the terms and conditions agreed upon can be more challenging unless there is evidence or witnesses.

Handshake Agreements

Handshake agreements symbolize a classic form of verbal contract. They are often used for informal or straightforward agreements where the parties involved trust each other. An example might be agreeing to sell a used bike to a neighbor for a set price. Both parties verbally agree, shake hands, and the deal is considered sealed.

However, despite their simplicity and the trust on which they are often based, handshake agreements carry risks due to their lack of formal documentation. Without written evidence, the specifics of the agreement can be easily misunderstood or forgotten, leading to disputes.

In summary, while verbal contracts are legally binding and can be enforced under the law, they do pose risks due to the difficulties in proving their existence and terms. For significant or complex agreements, a written contract is advisable to avoid potential legal complications. Transitioning into the next section, understanding the specific legal requirements for verbal contracts is crucial for anyone considering this form of agreement.

Legal Requirements for Verbal Contracts

Verbal contracts, just like their written counterparts, must adhere to certain legal standards to be considered valid under the law. Here’s a breakdown of these essential components:


An offer is a clear proposal made by one party to another. Think of it as saying, “I will do this for you, if you do that for me.” The offer must be specific enough that the person receiving it can accept it without needing further details.


Acceptance occurs when the other party agrees explicitly to the terms laid out in the offer. This acceptance must mirror the original offer without any modifications—this is known as the “mirror image rule.” If the terms are changed, it’s not acceptance but a counteroffer.


Consideration refers to something of value that is exchanged between the parties involved. This could be a service, money, an item, or even a promise to refrain from doing something. Each party must contribute something of value for the contract to be binding.

Meeting of the Minds

A “meeting of the minds” happens when all parties involved have a mutual understanding and agreement on the terms of the contract. This means everyone has a clear, unambiguous understanding of their obligations and the benefits they will receive.

Legally Enforceable Actions

For a verbal contract to be enforceable, the actions or promises within the agreement must be legal. For instance, you cannot enforce a verbal contract that involves illegal activities.

Real-world example: Let’s say Bob agrees to sell Alice a vintage car for $5,000, and they shake on it. Bob then decides not to sell. Alice can potentially enforce this agreement in court because it involves legal actions (the sale of a car) and includes consideration (the $5,000).

However, if the contract was for something illegal, like selling a stolen car, the contract would be void and unenforceable.

Understanding these elements is crucial if you’re considering entering into a verbal contract. While these contracts can be simpler and quicker to set up than written ones, ensuring they meet these legal criteria is essential for them to hold up in court, should a dispute arise. In the next section, we will explore how these verbal agreements are enforced in legal settings and what evidence can support their validity.

Enforceability of Verbal Contracts

Navigating the enforceability of verbal contracts can be tricky, especially considering the legal requirements and the potential for disputes. Let’s break down the factors that affect whether a verbal contract can stand up in court.

Statute of Frauds

The Statute of Frauds is a legal concept that requires certain types of contracts to be in writing to be enforceable. This includes contracts involving the sale of real estate, agreements to pay someone else’s debt, and contracts that cannot be completed within one year. The main purpose of this statute is to prevent fraud and misunderstandings by requiring written evidence of the agreement.

Jurisdictional Differences

Laws regarding verbal contracts can vary significantly from one jurisdiction to another. For example, the threshold amount for which a contract must be written can differ by state in the U.S. It’s important to understand the specific laws in your area or consult with a legal professional to ensure that your verbal contract complies with local regulations.

Types of Deals

Verbal contracts are more commonly used and are generally considered enforceable for simpler, less formal transactions. These might include small personal loans, casual employment agreements, or other day-to-day business dealings. However, for more complex transactions or those involving significant amounts of money, a written contract is advisable to avoid potential disputes.

Real Estate

When it comes to real estate, verbal agreements are typically not enforceable. Real estate transactions must be in writing due to their complexity and the significant values involved. This requirement helps ensure all parties clearly understand their rights and obligations.

Employment Contracts

For employment contracts, verbal agreements can be binding but proving the terms of the contract can be challenging if not impossible. It’s always best to have employment agreements documented in writing. This not only provides clarity and security for both the employer and the employee but also helps in ensuring compliance with labor laws and regulations.

Understanding the enforceability of verbal contracts is crucial in both personal and professional settings. While they can be legally binding, the complexities and risks associated with proving a verbal agreement in court often make written contracts a safer and more reliable choice. In the following sections, we’ll explore how to prove a verbal contract in court and discuss the limitations and risks associated with these types of agreements.

Proving a Verbal Contract in Court

When it comes to verbal contract law, one of the trickiest parts is proving the agreement in court. Unlike written contracts, there’s often no physical document to display. Instead, you must rely on other forms of evidence. Here’s how you can establish the existence and terms of a verbal contract in a legal setting:

Witness Testimonies

Witnesses can play a crucial role. If someone else was present during the discussions that led to the verbal agreement, their testimony could be pivotal. They can confirm what was agreed upon by both parties. The credibility of witnesses can significantly influence the outcome.


Any form of communication related to the agreement can help establish its terms. This includes text messages, emails, or even notes taken during meetings. For instance, if you have an email where the other party acknowledges the agreement or some aspects of it, this can be powerful evidence.

Actions Consistent with the Agreement

Actions speak loudly in court. If both parties have acted in ways that align with the terms of the supposed verbal agreement, these actions can be used to demonstrate the existence of the contract. For example, if one party has delivered goods or services as per the discussed terms, this can be a strong indicator that an agreement was indeed in place.


Submitting invoices and receiving payments can also serve as evidence. If you have issued invoices that the other party has paid, it suggests that they recognized the obligation as part of a verbal agreement.


Emails can be particularly effective in piecing together the terms and acknowledgments of a verbal contract. Detailed emails discussing the agreement terms, follow-ups, and even casual mentions of the agreement can help substantiate the claim.

In proving a verbal contract, the combination of these elements can help construct a compelling case that an agreement existed and was breached. However, the complexity of these situations often makes it advisable to seek legal guidance to navigate the nuances effectively. The more evidence you can gather, the stronger your position will be if disputes arise and you find yourself needing to enforce the agreement in court.

Limitations and Risks of Verbal Contracts

Verbal contracts, while legally binding, come with significant limitations and risks that can impact their enforceability and clarity in legal settings.

Statute of Frauds Requirements

One of the primary limitations of verbal contract law is the Statute of Frauds. This legal principle requires certain types of contracts to be in writing to be enforceable. These typically include agreements related to the sale of real estate, contracts that cannot be performed within one year, and promises to pay someone else’s debt. If your verbal agreement falls into one of these categories and isn’t documented in writing, it may be deemed invalid in a court of law.


Without a written record, verbal contracts are prone to misunderstandings. Each party may have a different recollection of what was agreed upon. This discrepancy can lead to disputes over the terms of the contract, making it challenging to enforce and resolve conflicts. For example, if two parties verbally agree on the sale price of a business, but later disagree on the amount discussed, proving the agreed-upon figure becomes difficult without written evidence.

Legal Disputes

Verbal agreements often result in legal disputes due to their inherent lack of clarity and proof. When disagreements escalate to legal action, both parties face the burden of proving their version of the agreement in court. This process can be time-consuming, stressful, and costly. Legal experts like those at Moton Legal Group often emphasize the importance of written contracts to avoid such disputes.

Proof of Agreement

Proving the existence and specifics of a verbal contract in court can be a daunting task. Evidence such as witness testimonies, emails, texts, or other correspondence can support the claim. However, these may not always clearly outline the complete terms agreed upon. Actions consistent with the agreement, like payments or performance based on the contract’s terms, can also serve as evidence, but they may not definitively prove the contract’s existence or details.

Navigating the complexities of verbal contracts requires careful consideration and often legal advice. While they can be suitable for simple, low-risk agreements, understanding the potential pitfalls is crucial. For more substantial or long-term commitments, securing a written contract is invariably the safer and recommended approach. This ensures all parties clearly understand their obligations and legal protections, reducing the risk of disputes and the need for legal intervention.

When to Use Verbal Contracts

Verbal contracts can be a practical solution in many everyday situations. Here’s a simple guide to understanding when it might be appropriate to rely on a verbal agreement rather than setting up a formal written contract.

Small Transactions

For minor purchases or sales, like buying a used bike from a neighbor or selling an old piece of furniture, a verbal contract is usually sufficient. These are low-cost, low-risk situations where the simplicity of a verbal agreement can save time and effort for everyone involved.

Informal Arrangements

Think about casual services among friends or acquaintances—perhaps babysitting for a couple of hours or helping a friend move furniture. In such cases, a verbal agreement is common and often effective. It’s understood that these are based on mutual trust and straightforward terms.

Trusted Relationships

Within families or among close friends, where there is a strong foundation of trust, verbal contracts are often used. For example, an agreement between siblings to take turns caring for an elderly parent can function well without written documentation.

Short-term Agreements

For agreements that are to be fulfilled in a short span of time, like a quick consulting job or a one-time class at a local community center, verbal agreements can be adequate. These arrangements are typically straightforward and completed quickly, reducing the potential for misunderstandings.

In all these scenarios, while a verbal contract can legally suffice, it’s beneficial to follow up with some form of written confirmation, such as an email or text message. This helps clarify the terms for all parties and provides a basic record of the agreement. For anything involving higher stakes or longer durations, drafting a written contract is the best way to protect your interests and ensure clarity and commitment from all involved.

Protecting Yourself When Entering a Verbal Contract

Entering into a verbal contract can often seem like the simplest route to take in informal or quick agreements. However, without the proper precautions, it can lead to misunderstandings or disputes. Here are practical steps to help protect yourself when engaging in a verbal contract:

Written Confirmation

Always follow up any verbal agreement with a written confirmation. This can be as simple as sending an email or a text message summarizing the key points that were agreed upon. For example, if you verbally agree to buy a used bike for $100, you could send an email stating, “As discussed, I will buy your bike for $100, and I will pick it up next Tuesday.” This acts as a tangible record of the agreement and can be invaluable if any disputes arise.

Email Summaries

For more complex discussions, email summaries are essential. After a verbal agreement, detail every aspect of the conversation in an email and send it to the other party asking for their confirmation or any corrections. This not only keeps both parties on the same page but also ensures that there is a mutual understanding of the terms discussed.

Witness Presence

Whenever possible, have a third party present during the discussion of a verbal contract. This witness can be a friend, colleague, or anyone who can understand the agreement. Their presence can be crucial if the contract ever comes into dispute, as they can provide an independent account of what was agreed upon.

Legal Advice

For verbal agreements that involve significant consequences or larger sums of money, it’s wise to seek legal advice. A lawyer can provide guidance on the potential risks involved and suggest ways to formally document the agreement to safeguard your interests. They can also help you understand your rights and the enforceability of the verbal contract under your local laws.

Taking these steps does not complicate the process excessively but provides a safety net that can prevent potential legal issues. While verbal contracts can be convenient, securing them with written confirmations, summaries, witness testimonies, and legal insights ensures that all parties have a clear understanding and agreement on the terms. This approach not only protects your interests but also maintains the integrity and trust necessary for successful personal and business relationships.

Frequently Asked Questions about Verbal Contract Law

Is a verbal agreement legally enforceable?

Yes, verbal agreements are legally enforceable. However, proving the terms without written evidence can be challenging. If all essential elements of a contract (offer, acceptance, consideration, and mutual intent) are clearly met, the verbal agreement is as valid as a written one. But remember, some agreements, like those involving real estate or exceeding a year, must be in writing due to the Statute of Frauds.

What are the 5 requirements of a valid oral contract?

For a verbal contract to be considered valid, it must include:
1. Offer: One party needs to make a clear and definite offer.
2. Acceptance: The other party must accept this offer without any changes.
3. Consideration: Something of value (like money or services) must be exchanged.
4. Mutual Intent: Both parties intend for the agreement to be binding.
5. Legality of the Agreement: The contract must be for a lawful purpose.

These elements ensure that the agreement is serious and legally binding.

Can someone sue you for a verbal agreement?

Yes, you can be sued over a verbal agreement. If one party does not meet their part of the agreement, the other party can take legal action. The challenge lies in proving that the agreement existed and what the specific terms were. Evidence such as emails, text messages, witness testimonies, or actions that align with the agreement’s terms can help substantiate the claim in court.

Understanding these basics about verbal contract law helps in recognizing when verbal agreements are appropriate and how to approach them with caution. For significant or long-term commitments, written contracts are safer and clearer, reducing the risk of disputes. If you’re unsure about the specifics of your situation, consulting with legal professionals like those at Moton Legal Group can provide clarity and security.


Navigating the waters of verbal contract law can be tricky, but with the right approach, you can ensure your agreements are both clear and enforceable. Here are some best practices to consider:

  • Always prefer written contracts: While verbal agreements can be legally binding, the clarity and tangibility of written contracts make them far superior. They serve as a clear record of the terms agreed upon, significantly reducing the potential for misunderstandings or disputes.

  • Use simple language: Whether verbal or written, make sure the contract terms are expressed in simple, straightforward language. This ensures that all parties clearly understand their obligations and rights.

  • Document verbal agreements: If a verbal contract is unavoidable, follow up with an email or a written note summarizing the key points that were agreed upon. This can serve as a basic form of proof should any disputes arise.

  • Seek professional advice: Before entering into any significant contract, it’s wise to consult with legal experts. At Moton Legal Group, we specialize in reviewing and drafting contracts to ensure they protect your interests and meet all legal requirements.

While verbal contracts can be convenient for informal or trivial matters, they come with risks. Misunderstandings can easily occur when details aren’t written down. For anything beyond simple everyday transactions, a well-drafted written contract is your best safeguard against potential legal headaches.

At Moton Legal Group, we’re committed to helping you understand and navigate the complexities of contract law. Let us help you ensure that your agreements are solid, clear, and legally enforceable. Contact us today to learn more about how we can assist you in securing your business dealings with confidence.

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